Disasters: How To Quickly Help Yourself

Disasters are major and destructive natural phenomena or events that can cause significant damage to human life and property. They include various types of natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and other abnormal climate events.

Every year our planet suffers more and more at the hands of man: cars, factories, long-decomposing garbage and much more. This all upsets the balance and leads to irreparable changes in the environment. They affect the Earth’s ecosystem.

Causes of environmental changes

Human activity.

  • Industrialization and urbanization. Expansion of cities, construction of industrial facilities, mining and development of transport infrastructure lead to the loss of natural areas and degradation of ecosystems.
  • Environmental pollution. Toxic emissions, plastic waste, and the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers have a negative impact on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as on the health of animals and people.
  • Land use change. Deforestation, transformation of natural ecosystems into agricultural and industrial lands. Urbanization reduces biodiversity and destroys natural habitats.
  • Changing of the climate. Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, methane) caused by human activities lead to global warming, changing precipitation patterns and weather conditions, which affects ecosystems and living organisms.

Impact of environmental changes

  1. Loss of biodiversity. Changes in environmental conditions can lead to the extinction of animal and plant species. This threatens the sustainability of ecosystems and human well-being.
  2. Health hazards. Air, water and soil pollution can cause various diseases in animals and people.

Environmental changes require attention and precautions to minimize their negative impact on the environment and ensure sustainable development of human society.

All this influences the cataclysms that occur. Let’s take a closer look.

The reasons why disasters occur may vary depending on the type of event:

Earthquakes: Earthquakes occur due to tectonic movements in the earth’s crust. Tectonic plates shift and collide with each other, releasing enormous amounts of energy in the form of seismic waves. And they collide due to the internal thermal processes of the planet. These movements of the mantle cause convection currents that push tectonic plates in different directions

    Hurricanes and typhoons. Hurricanes and typhoons occur due to thermal equilibrium and temperature differences between the ocean and the atmosphere. Warm ocean waters provide an energy source that supports cyclonic systems with strong winds and rain.

      Floods. Floods can be caused by heavy rainfall, melting snow, failure of levees, or other factors that cause large volumes of water to quickly accumulate and be unable to be absorbed by the soil.

        Tsunami. Tsunamis are usually caused by undersea earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, which cause shifts in the seabed and the generation of large waves that travel at considerable speed towards the shores. Human activity can also cause tsunamis, although these occur less frequently and are usually the result of man-made disasters or accidents. For example, accidents with nuclear submarines or ships. Collapses of soil or rock masses may occur on underwater slopes or shores. Military explosions or incidents on offshore platforms, such as gas or oil explosions.

          Disasters are natural processes that are often inevitable and affect the lives of many people. They can have different sizes and consequences, so it is important to be prepared for them, have a plan of action and follow the instructions of local authorities in the event of a threat of disaster.

          How to behave in the event of disasters

          In a catastrophic event such as an earthquake, hurricane or flood, it is important to follow certain guidelines to ensure your safety and the protection of life. Here are some basic precautions and tips on how to behave during these disasters:


          1. Stay where you are. If you are indoors, stay there and take cover under a stable table or door frame to protect yourself from collapse. Do not run out onto the landing, which will collapse first.
          2. Avoid windows and heavy objects. Move away from windows and walls where there may be heavy objects that could fall.
          3. Don’t use elevators. During the earthquake, do not use elevators; they may get stuck.
          4. Protect your head and neck. If it is impossible to hide under something, try to protect your head and neck with your hands.
          5. Be prepared for aftershocks. The main shock may be followed by secondary, so stay in the same place and wait.


          1. Stay in a safe place. If you are at home, make sure that you are in the safest room possible, preferably one without or reinforced windows.
          2. Stock up on food and water. If you receive notice of an approaching hurricane, prepare supplies of food and water for several days. After a cataclysm, there may be a supply problem.
          3. Avoid cars and windows. Refrain from going near windows or cars, as glass may break if exposed to strong winds or objects.
          4. Listen to local warnings. Please monitor your local authorities for information and advice, they may provide important guidance and warnings. Do not ignore if you are prohibited from certain actions.
          5. Prepare the necessary materials. If there is an impending hurricane, make sure that you have a blanket and provisions. Leave the area quickly and safely if necessary.


          1. Stay in high places. If there is a threat of flooding, take shelter in the highest place in your home or move to a safe place if you are outdoors.
          2. Do not cross flooded areas. Do not attempt to cross flooded roads or areas because it may be dangerous due to fast-moving water. You will simply be carried away by the flow of water.
          3. Stay in touch. If possible, liaise with local authorities and follow their instructions regarding evacuation recommendations.
          4. Protect documents and personal belongings. Move important documents, valuables and personal items to high shelves or areas protected from water. It is better to always put documents in one place in a waterproof file in advance.
          5. Be prepared to evacuate. When evacuation becomes necessary, follow the instructions of local security authorities and prepare a bag with essential survival items.

          These tips will help you stay safe in the event of catastrophic situations. It is important to remember that being prepared in advance and following recommendations helps save lives and minimize risks.


          Disasters are large-scale natural disasters or crisis events that occur on Earth and can have devastating consequences for life and the environment. Take care of nature, know the safety rules to help yourself.

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